1. Since Huamachuco is in the Southern Hemisphere, St.
Patrick's Day falls in the summer rather than winter, as in the
Northern Hemisphere. Despite the season, the weather in the mountain
village (3180 m) would have been cold.
2. Alfred Hasbrouck, 'Foreign Legionaries in the
South America' (New York: Columbia University Press, 1928; London: P.
S. King, 1928; rpt. New York: Octagon Books, 1969), p. 388, 29-30.
Eric Lambert, 'Irish Soldiers in South America, 1818-1830' in The
Irish Sword, Vol. XVI, N° 62 (Summer 1984) p. 27. Hasbrouck has
1,729 men in the Irish Legion of John Devereux, plus an additional 387
in the Irish contingent of Colonel Gore. Irish-born soldiers also
served in Bolívar's British Legion. Lambert has fifty-three ships
leaving the coasts of Britain
and Ireland 'carrying some 5,500 officers and men, of whom about
5,000-more than half of them Irish-set foot on the shores of South
3. Maurice R. O'Connell (ed.) 'The Correspondence of
Daniel O'Connell', Vol. II (New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1973), p.
257-58: Letter N° 837, Daniel O'Connell to General Bolívar, Dublin,
Ireland, 17 April 1820. According to Maurice R. O'Connell (personal
correspondence to author, 23 December 1991),
O'Connell's support for Bolívar's liberation campaign did not
contradict his well-known antipathy to bloodshed at home: 'O'Connell
was not a pacifist. He believed that most wars are unnecessary-as a
great many Liberals did in the nineteenth century. He would have
justified aid to the South Americans against Spain on the ground that
the King of Spain was a tyrant who destroyed the Liberales in Spain,
restored absolute monarchy and reestablished the Inquisition..... his
reasons for supporting intervention were not a denial of his
non-violent principles. I don't think he would agree for a moment that
the Spanish monarchy as restored after the fall of Napoleon was a
4. Oliver MacDonagh, 'The Hereditary Bondsman: Daniel
O'Connell, 1775-1829' (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1988), p. 171.
5. The O'Connors were descended from an English family
of Protestant merchants named Conner that settled in Cork during the
seventeenth century. Francis' father Roger, who along with his
better-known brother Arthur became United Irishmen, Gaelicized the
surname to O'Connor, while the rest retained the original Conner. See
Laurence M. Geary, 'Fraternally Yours: Roderic and Francis Burdett
O'Conner' in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological
Society, Vol. XCV., N° 254 (January-December 1990), p. 120. Francisco
Burdett started out as William, while his brother Feargus Edward was
originally named Edward Bowen; both forenames were changed by their
father in early life, the former in honor of Roger's friend and patron
Sir Francis Burdett, a Baronet and radical member of the English
Parliament. See Richard Robert Madden, 'The United Irishmen: Their
Lives and Times' (New York: Tandy Publishing Company, 1911), p. 160;
Eric Lambert, 'General Francis Burdett O'Connor' in The Irish Sword,
Vol. XIII, N° 51 (Winter 1977), p. 128. This imaginative rewriting of
family history led later generations of the faux-Irish family to claim
descent from Rory O'Connor, last of the Irish High Kings; Mulhall
reports that Francisco Burdett adopted the coat of arms of the Royal
O'Connors as his own. See Michael G. Mulhall, 'The English in South
America' (Buenos Aires: Standard Printing Office, 1878), pp. 263-64.
The consequences of such genealogical delusions can be seen in the
words of Tomas O'Connor d'Arlach, who arranged for the publication of
the memoirs of Francisco Burdett: 'My grandfather was the last
representative of that ancient royal house of Ireland that has
nurtured in its bosom so many distinguished men who have brought
imperishable glory to the fatherland, some in the halls of Parliament,
others in the forum, in letters, in diplomacy, and on the field of
battle, and still others in sacrificing their lives as martyrs for the
Catholic faith and to their religious belief, which the family has
preserved intact through the centuries'; see Enrique Naranjo M(artinez),
'Irish Participation in Bolívar's Campaigns' (Washington, D.C., 1927;
rpt. from the Bulletin of the Pan American Union, October, 1925), p.
5. The claim to martyrdom is especially ironic in light of the fact
that Roger and his son Arthur were lifelong atheists; Francis Burdett
apparently shared their beliefs while in Ireland, but became a devout
Catholic in South America and died with the Last Rites. James
Dunkerley provides a theoretical explanation of the motives for this
claim (royal descent) in the sons' attitude to the contrast between
their father Roger, 'a sportsman and spectacular spendthrift' and
their uncle Arthur, a 'renegade MP, hardline leader of the United
Irishmen and convicted traitor to the British crown, who was idolized
by his nephews as a persecuted and heroic patriot. The imbalance
between their father and uncle in terms of public profile and
achievement possibly helps to explain why both Frank and Feargus
maintained throughout their lives that the family descended from the
kings of Connaught, thereby providing some dynastic compensation
-perhaps even excuse- for the fact that Roger was, in the words of
Graham Wallas, 'a semi-lunatic'; see James Dunkerley, 'The Third Man:
Francisco Burdett O'Connor and the Emancipation of the Americas'
(University of London: Institute of Latin American Studies, Occasional
Papers N° 20; 1999) pp. 2-3.
6. Francisco Burdett O'Connor, 'Un Irlandés con
Bolívar' (Caracas: El Cid Editor, 1977), pp. 69-70. All citations in
the above article are taken from this, the third edition. O'Connors'
memoirs were not published during his lifetime, but later appeared
under various titles and dates. The first edition, titled 'Recuerdos',
was published in Tarija, Bolivia:
Talleres de La Estrella, 1895. The second edition, titled 'Independencia
Americana: Recuerdos de Francisco Burdett O'Connor, colonel del
Ejército, libertador de Colombia y general de división del Perú y
Bolivia', was published in Madrid by Biblioteca Ayacucho, 'dirigida
por el escritor venezuelano Rufino Blanco-Fombona' in 1916. The second
edition was also published in La Paz,
Cochabamba, Oruro and Potosi (Gonzalez y Medina, 1915). O'Connor's
grandson Tomás (often erroneously referred to as Francisco) O'Connor
d'Arlach was responsible for publication of the second edition. His
prologue appears in the second and third (1977) editions. See 'Breve
Noticia Sobre La Obra' in 'O'Connor, Un Irlandés con Bolívar'; James
Dunkerley, 'The Third Man', p. 7; The National Union Catalog Pre-1956
Imprints (London: Mansell, 1968-1981) Vol. 426, pp. 329-330.
7. Bolívar's Cork-born aide-de-camp, Daniel O'Leary,
gives the date of Bolívar's council-of-war at Huamachuco as 22 April 1824. See 'Memorias del General Daniel Florencio O'Leary: Narración',
Segundo (Caracas: Imprenta Nacional, 1952), p. 251.
8. Martha Gil-Montero, 'The Liberator's Noble Match'
May-June 1993, p. 11.
9. Martha Gil-Montero, 'The Marchioness and the
March-April, 1994, p. 7.
10. Martha Gil-Montero, 'The Liberator's Noble Match',
11. Martha Gil-Montero, 'The Marchioness and the
Marshall', p. 9.
12. Sir Bernard Burke, 'A Genealogical and Heraldic
History of the Landed Gentry of Ireland' (London:
Harrison & Sons, 1912), p. 623. All six sons choose military careers
and served overseas. Only one (Goodman) of Arthur's brothers survived
to return to Ireland, the others dying in South Africa (John),
Trinidad (Henry and George) and on a ship returning from India
13. Arthur was present at The Battle of Waterloo. See
Eric Lambert: 'Arthur Sandes of Kerry' in The Irish Sword, Vol.
XII, N° 47 (Winter 1975), p. 139. There is credible evidence that
Arthur Sandes was a fluent Irish speaker; Maurice R. O'Connell, op.
cit. p. 410, n. 1. See also Eric Lambert, 'Voluntarios Británicos e
Irlandeses en la Gesta Bolívariana' (Caracas: Ministerio de Defensa,
1993) Tomo III, pp. 266-267, where the author relates a fascinating
tale of an Irish family named Collins settled at San Carlos, near
Santa Marta in modern-day Colombia. According to the author, they were
part of a colony of 'free English' (ingleses libres) founded by Spain's King Carlos
III. In this case, the term 'English' seems to have loosely applied.
The Collins father and one of his daughters were presented to the
Spanish commander, who could not understand a single word of what they
were saying. O'Connor was next called upon to try in English, which
also met with failure. Shortly thereafter, Sandes was observed
conversing with the Collins family in Irish.
14. Lambert, 'Arthur Sandes of Kerry', p. 141.
15. Martha Gil-Montero, 'The Liberator's Noble Match',
16. Hasbrouck, op. cit, pp. 333-34. Michael G. Mulhall,
'The English in South America' (Buenos
Aires: The Standard Office, 1878; London: E. Stanford, 1878; rpt. New
York: Arno Press, 1977), pp. 283. 'Journal from Lima to Caracas,
Commencing Sept. 4, 1826' by Colonel William O. Ferguson (unpublished
thirteen-page manuscript that was sent home after Ferguson's death,
presently held by his grand-nephew in Canada), introduction by
anonymous grand-nephew, p. 1.
17. Henry Boylan (ed.) 'A Dictionary of Irish
Biography', Third Edition (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan Ltd., 1998), p.
Robert Welch (ed.) 'The Oxford Companion to
Irish Literature' (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), p. 185-86.
'Dictionary of National Biography', Vol. VI (London:
Oxford University Press, 1953), pp. 1219-20.
18. Francisco Burdett O'Connor, op. cit., p. 69;
Martha Gil-Montero, 'The Liberator's Noble match', p.p. 14-15; Eric
Lambert, 'Arthur Sandes of Kerry', p. 145.